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Transformer loss and temperature rise

When the transformer is running, the magnetic flux passing through the core will be lost in the core, and the current passing through the winding will also be lost in the winding. In addition, the leakage flux caused by the winding current and the leakage flux outside the core when the core is overexcited will cause additional losses in various layouts such as coils, core layout parts, core sheets, and oil tanks. And the fan also has losses.

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All losses are converted to heat, a portion of which is used to increase the temperature of the various components, and another portion that dissipates heat to the cooling medium adjacent to each component.

The insulation materials used in transformers have a certain thermal life. For example, the oil-immersed transformer has a heat resistance rating of Class A, and the Class A insulation material has a long-term operating temperature of 105 °C.

According to the heat aging rule of transformer insulation according to GB/T 15164-1994 "Guidelines for Oil-Immersed Electronic Transformer Loads", the transformer insulation is based on the hot temperature of 90 °C. The temperature is increased by 6 °C, and the aging rate is doubled; The temperature drops by 6 ° C, and the aging rate is reduced by 1/2. This is in accordance with GB 1094 "Power Transformer", which corresponds to "operating at an ambient temperature of 20 ° C and a hot temperature rise of 78 K". This is in consideration of the fact that the ambient temperature of the transformer is changed during the year. When the ambient temperature is higher than 20 °C, the hot temperature will exceed 98 °C; when the ambient temperature is lower than 20 °C, the hot temperature will be less than 98 °C.


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